From Faith Kindle: Generating an ICS file after Service Appointment Save in Salesforce Scheduler flows


Salesforce Scheduler provides tools needed to simplify appointment scheduling in Salesforce. With Salesforce Scheduler, it’s easy to embed appointment scheduling into standard Salesforce workflows, such as leads and referrals, opportunities, and accounts.

The outcome of the scheduling process is creation of a Service Appointment record which has the details of the appointment created by the Scheduler engine and informed by input from the end user. Salesforce Scheduler also includes out-of-the-box functionality that will generate a related event on the user’s (Service Resource’s) Salesforce calendar when ‘Event Management’ is enabled in Setup Salesforce Scheduler. Settings. Tools like Einstein Activity Capture can extend Scheduler’s “Event Management” functionality by synching these events to user’s calendar applications like Outlook, Google calendar, etc.

Problem Statement

While Einstein activity capture may be helpful for users using Salesforce, the question most implementation experts ask is – “How can we help prospects and customers scheduling externally to download the appointment confirmation to their personal calendars?”

An example can be with a new prospect interested to meet a financial advisor of a bank going ahead and scheduling an appointment using a contact us page from a company website (where the implementation done might be a guest flow exposed out on the company’s website) wants to download the appointment confirmation to their google calendar.

How do we solve for it?
The answer is with providing a ICS file – after the creation of a service appointment to download.

What is an ICS file?

Internet Engineering Task Force defined a standard in 1998 for sharing calendar events. An ICS file is a calendar file saved in a universal calendar format used by several email and calendar programs, including Microsoft Outlook, Google Calendar, etc. It allows users to share calendar information on the web and over email. Because all popular calendar applications can use ICS files to add event details to a calendar, ICS files are the most common type of files used to exchange calendar information.

ICS files are plain text files that contain information about a calendar event, including the event’s

  • Title
  • Summary and description
  • Start and end times
  • Location
  • Alert trigger

Creating ICS file in Salesforce

While we understand what goes into an ICS file, let’s look at some sample process to create one in Salesforce.

Making an ICS file available to download for Google Calendar, Microsoft Outlook, and Office 365

While there are several ways to make the ICS file available for download, we can make it EASY by making it available for download via link when (or after) we show the Appointment confirmation. In this example we will use flow to generate an ICS URL that, when clicked, will translate to an ICS file for Google Calendar, Microsoft Outlook, and Office 365. (Note: this is just one of many possible approaches. This approach can be be used in conjunction with Salesforce Scheduler’s out-of-the-box Inbound or Outbound new appointment flows, or your custom cloned versions of these flows.)

  • Create custom fields on the Service Appointment object with datatype as URL
    • In our example we created three URL fields with API names Google_ICS__c, Outlook_ICS__c, and Office_365_ICS__c
    • Note: this step is NOT necessary for displaying the URLs on your confirmation page, however may be useful later if, for example, you are sending a confirmation email to your customers and want to include the ability to download the appointment within that email.
  • On the Flow used for appointment booking
    • add Get Record action to retrieve the Service Appointment record after the Save Appointment action is executed
  • with a filter condition to retrieve the Service Appointment created in this flow
  • Add the following Formula variables to your flow. Note the reason for these different formulas is that each format we generate will expect slightly different syntax – for example, Google does not want hyphens or colons in its dates, and Microsoft uses “+” instead of spaces.
    • Note: you can modify these formulas to your business’s preferences, if they do not specifically match. For example, you may not want your subject to be “Service Appointment Subject with Service Resource first name.” In that case, you can remove the “with” and Service Resource first name from the formula to leave just the Service Appointment Subject, for example. Or, you are using a virtual web conference as your meeting place. In that case, you may want to input the web conference link in your description, or modify the text between the URLs’ location parameters in order to set the web conference as your location for your downloadable events.
    • StartDateFormatted
    • EndDateFormatted
    • GoogleICSURL” & {!Get_SA.Subject} & ” with ” & {!Get_SA.Owner:User.FirstName} & “&details=” & {!Get_SA.Description} & “&location=” & {!Get_SA.Street} & “, ” & {!Get_SA.City} & “, ” & {!Get_SA.State} & “, ” & {!Get_SA.PostalCode} & “&dates=” & {!StartDateFormatted}&”/”&{!EndDateFormatted}
    • OutlookICSURL” & {!Get_SA.Subject} & “+with+” & {!Get_SA.Owner:User.FirstName} & “&body=” & Substitute({!Get_SA.Description}, ” “, “+”) & “&location=” & Substitute({!Get_SA.Street}, ” “, “+”) & “+” & Substitute({!Get_SA.City}, ” “, “+”) & “+” & Substitute({!Get_SA.State}, ” “, “+”) & “+” & Substitute({!ServiceAppointment.PostalCode}, ” “, “+”) & “&startdt=” & Substitute(TEXT({!Get_SA.SchedStartTime}), ” “, “T”)& “&enddt=” & Substitute(TEXT({!Get_SA.SchedEndTime}), ” “, “T”)& “&allday=” & “false”
    • Office365URL” & {!Get_SA.Subject} & “+with+” & {!Get_SA.Owner:User.FirstName} & “&body=” & Substitute({!Get_SA.Description}, ” “, “+”) & “&location=” & Substitute({!Get_SA.Street}, ” “, “+”) & “+” & Substitute({!Get_SA.City}, ” “, “+”) & “+” & Substitute({!Get_SA.State}, ” “, “+”) & “+” & Substitute({!Get_SA.PostalCode}, ” “, “+”) & “&startdt=” & Substitute(TEXT({!Get_SA.SchedStartTime}), ” “, “T”)& “&enddt=” & Substitute(TEXT({!Get_SA.SchedEndTime}), ” “, “T”)& “&allday=” & “false”
  • Add an Updates Records component to update your Service Appointment with the URLs you generated. Note: like the custom fields storing the URLs we generate, this step is NOT necessary for displaying the URLs on your confirmation page, however may be useful later if, for example, you are sending a confirmation email to your customers and want to include the ability to download the appointment within that email.
  • Display the URL fields on the confirmation page by dragging a Display Text component under the out-of-the-box Service Appointment Confirmation.
    • In the example below, we include a generic “Add to Calendar” graphic and hyperlinked text “Google | Outlook | Office 365.”
    • We use the hyperlink to link Google text to variable {!GoogleICSURL}
    • Similarly, Outlook text is linked to variable {!OutlookICSURL}
    • And Office 365 text is linked to variable {!Office365ICSURL}


Salesforce Scheduler Customization: Adding an ICS URL for a Clickable Link to Download Appointment


From Sunil Nandipati: Deploying Salesforce Scheduler from Sandbox to Production Environments


Customers who have a streamlined development processes typically use multiple non-production environments (one for each probably – development, QA, integration, data migration, SIT and UAT). And it is a general practice that development teams develops in development sandboxes first, check in their code to a repository and adds instructions to deployment trackers – for deployment teams to perform the deployment steps. These can include any manual steps – related to enabling features, adding data etc. Typically anything that cannot be done using the metadata API.


Salesforce Scheduler provides a guided setup experience to setup the product for use. It is NOT a good practice to expect the deployment teams to repeat these steps manually in every single Org. Reasons can be many. To quote a few – prone to human errors while executing manual steps, time consuming, too much detailed documentation will be required and some customers do NOT prefer a partner or consultant to have administrator access to environments other than development.

Guidelines while deploying Scheduler

While deploying Salesforce scheduler between environments – consider categorizing your components into the following areas

Pre deployment activities

Include steps that need to be performed before migrating the codebase using the Metadata API. These can be manual steps for features that are NOT yet supported by the MetaData API (or) any dependent packages that are required for your implementation.

Deploy code using Metadata API

Step 1 – Include feature settings that are related to “Salesforce Scheduler Settings” which need to be either Enabled or Disabled, should be covered first
Note: The settings mentioned in Italic and which do NOT have a Metadata Reference are currently NOT supported by Metadata API – will be addressed in future releases (Safe harbor). If you are using these features – activate them manually as part of your pre-deployment steps

Salesforce Scheduler SettingsMetadata Reference
Event ManagmentenableEventManagementOrgPref
Block Resource AvailabilityenableBlockResourceAvailabilityOrgPref
Multi Attendee EventenableCreateMultiAttendeeEventOrgPref
Appointment Distribution
Aggregate Resource Use
Publish Appointments as Platform Events
Multi Resource SchedulingenableMultiResourceOrgPref
Concurrent SchedulingenableOverbookingOrgPref
Operating Hours for Service Territory Members for Work Type Groups
Salesforce Scheduler for Health Cloud
Resource Appointment Sharing

Step 2 – Include any customizations done to the product offering should be added to the Codebase (repository). Consider evaluating your customizations around

  1. Sharing settings – OWD and Sharing rules (include groups or roles – if sharing rules are around those)
  2. Custom fields on Scheduler objects
  3. New Picklist values on Scheduler objects
  4. Skills
  5. Custom buttons, actions and links
  6. Changes to page layouts
  7. Flows
  8. Custom components that are added to the flows
  9. Custom classes and triggers
  10. Validation Rules
  11. Experience Cloud
  12. Lightning Out for Guest user on a customer website (endpoint URLs will be different)

Post deployment activities

Include steps that need to be performed for the scheduler solution to work. This will mostly include migrating your data and setting up the users and adding scheduler PSLs. Consider leveraging data loader or an ETL tool for data migrations and ensure data integrity (order of loads) and references are maintained post migration between the records in multiple objects.

Salesforce Foundation Objects
SObjectNameLoad SequenceRelationships to Establish
User2Profile, UserRole
PermissionSetAssignment3PermissionSet Or PermissionSetGroup, User
Salesforce Scheduler CORE Objects
SObjectNameLoad SequenceRelationships to Establish
Skill1Can also be migrated as Metadata (So ensure you are NOT duplicating this step)
Operating Hours1
Operating Hours Holiday2
Work Type Group1
Service Territory2Operating Hours
Work Type2Operating Hours
Work Type Group Member3Work Type Group, Work Type
Service Territory Work Type3Service Territory, Work Type
Service Resource3UserIf using Assets as Service Resource, the order should be after Assets
Service Resource Skill4Service Resource, Skill
Time Slot4Operating Hours, Work Type Group
Service Territory Member4Operating Hours, Service Territory, Service Resource
Appointment Assignment Policy1
Appointment Scheduling Policy2Appointment Assignment Policy
Appointment Topic Time Slot5Work Type Group, Work Type, Time Slot
Salesforce CORE Transactional Objects
SObjectNameLoad SequenceRelationships to Establish
Account3UserOwner of the Account
Parent Account Id should be an additional Step if you manage hierarchy of Accounts
And probably any custom look-ups if you have included Custom Fields
Contact4Account, User
Opportunity5Account, Contact, User
Lead6Account, Contact, Opportunity, UserWhen migrating Converted Leads
Asset5Product, Account, Contact
Salesforce Scheduler Transactional Objects
SObjectNameLoad SequenceRelationships to Establish
Resource Absence4Service Resource
Resource Preference6Service Resource, Related (Account, Lead OR Opportunity)
Shift6Service Resource, Work Type, Appointment Topic TimeSlot
Service Appointment7Service Territory, WorkType, Account, Parent Record (Either Account, Lead OR Opportunity)
Assigned Resource8Service Resource, Service Appointment
Event9Service Appointment, WhatId (Asset, Account OR Opportunity), Owner (Users), WhoID (Lead OR Contact)
Appointment Invitation8Work Type OR Work Type Group, Service Territory
Appointment Invitee9Appointment Invitation, Service Resource

Note – even the scheduling policies and assignment policies have objects (AppointmentSchedulingPolicy and AppointmentAssignmentPolicy) – they can be migrated.

Few best practices to keep in mind

  1. Consider deactivating picklist values that come OOTB if there is NO plan to use them in your solution
  2. If you have hardcoded any IDs in your flows (for defaulting any records like Work Type Group, service territory etc.) – replace with Production IDs wherever appropriate
  3. Turn OFF Rules (Validation, Escalation, Assignment, Workflows, Process builders, Flows, Sharing Rules) to avoid getting errors while performing data loads
  4. Re-calculate Sharing Rules post migration of all data
  5. And Finally explore sfdx-cli data tree import option to load in fewer amount to steps
    1. Make sure the number of records getting loaded are fewer than 200 in a single step (thats the limitation to look for when using the data tree import option with sfdx-cli)
    2. Refer here –


From Sunil Nandipati: Scheduling a Contact

Problem Statement

With Salesforce Scheduler, it’s easy to embed appointment scheduling into standard Salesforce workflows, such as leads and referrals, opportunities, accounts (and person accounts in the B2C Model).

But NOT for Contacts (with B2B model) and Cases.

Though it is synonymous that you want to schedule a Contact when we say scheduling around a case, since the case contact is the person you would prefer interacting with, we will look at options to schedule a contact.

Note: Field Service Lightning Product extends this to additional objects – Work Order, Work Order Line Item and Asset.

Understand Scheduler OOTB Behavior

Before we start looking at an option how we can customize the experience for scheduling around a contact, lets try to understand the core objects we have from Salesforce Scheduler that capture a booked appointment using the OOTB behavior and how we can reuse the existing OOTB available references.

  • Service Appointment
  • Assigned Resources
  • Event

We will keep our focus understanding the relationships and the references

ObjectFieldData TypeUsage
Service AppointmentParentRecordLookup(Account,Opportunity,Lead)Using Salesforce Scheduler we can create a Service Appointment only around Account, Opportunity or Lead.
Service AppointmentAccountLookup(Account)Defaults to the Customer account’s for inbound, Left blank for a Lead and related account if booking around an opportunity.
Service AppointmentContactLookup(Contact)Defaults to the user’s contact record when requesting from a customer community via an inbound authenticated user booking scenario. Left blank otherwise.

We will use this standard field to Stamp the Contact ID – during Service Appointment creation when doing an Outbound Scheduling from Internal Salesforce in this blog.
Assigned ResourceServiceAppointmentMaster-Detail(Service Appointment)Service Appointment object does NOT hold the service resource information, it is primarly stored in the Assigned Resource object. This is the reference to Service Appointment.
Assigned ResourceServiceResourceLookup(Service Resource)Service Resource reference (can be either a user or an asset)
Service ResourceRelatedRecordLookup(User)Service resource object reference to a User – which can be either a Platform Starter / Partner Community / Customer Community Plus / Salesforce license type user
EventWhoIdLookup(Contact,Lead)Events are like your calendar events. The person who will attend this event is captured here.
EventWhatId (Related To)Except Lead and Contact, Other objectsAnd this event is related to what in Salesforce
EventServiceAppointmentLookup(Service Appointment)When Event Management is turned ON on the Scheduler settings, every time a service appointment is created, it creates a related Event – this is to hold that references
EventOwner (Assigned To)Lookup(User,Calendar)Represents the owner of the record (internal user or an external calendar)

Customization Guidance to schedule a Contact

Having looked at the above objects and references, it is pretty much clear that we CAN reuse the existing Contact lookup on Service Appointment. When using Events, we WILL have to make sure the related EVENT gets created with this Contact reference as well.

To achieve this we need to modify the existing template slightly. Try these steps outlined below

  1. Start with a cloned flow from the template (In this example we have cloned the “Outbound New Appointment” template to create a flow called “Outbound New Appointment for Contact”)
  2. Since we plan to launch this from a Contact record, the recordId will be the Contact.Id that will be passed to the Flow. So we need to make sure we capture the Contact.AccountId as well. Create a variable to capture the AccountId. Service Appointment ParentID field can only accept records from Lead, Account and Opportunity, so lets make sure we pass the account information from the Contact
  • Assignment – Set Initial Values :: make sure the recordId is assigned to ServiceAppointment.ContactId
  • Screen – Attendees Screen :: ensure the Contact ID assignment is NOT empty – change it to {!ServiceAppointment.ContactId}
  • Screen – Review Screen :: ensure the Contact ID and Parent Record ID assignments are correct
  • Finally make sure the Event Management is turned ON
  1. Save the Flow and Activate it
  2. Add a Lightning Action to Launch this flow
  • Add this Lighting Action to your Contact Page Layout
  • Finally, test it for yourself. Here is a demo of the same configuration tested on a developer trial org

Considerations when using with Field Service

As mentioned in the preface – Scheduling an appointment gets extended to additional Objects which are NOT supported by Salesforce Scheduler when using Salesforce Field Service product (Earlier Field Service Lightning).

Some considerations to keep in mind when using both products –

Especially with both the products (Scheduler and Field Service) in the same org, ensure you take extra care around Event Management using a custom route rather than turning ON the Event Management option as mentioned above.

From Chris Albanese: Enhancing the Share Availability Feature with Appointment Invitation configurations


The Summer ’22 release of Salesforce Scheduler introduces an amazing new feature called Share Service Resource Availability by Using an Invitation URL. This feature allows a service resource to easily generate a URL that their customers and prospects can use to schedule appointments with them.

Above: Help and Training Article describing the new feature

At the heart of this feature is a new object called Appointment Invitation. When a service resource generates their URL, a record is created in this object.

Appointment Invitation schema depicted below (partial)

Like most objects in Salesforce, you can add custom fields to this object.

Why would you do this?

This allows the service resource to personalize the invitation, meaning you could do something as simple as displaying information to the customer while they are scheduling an appointment from this invitation.
Additionally, you can perform more complex processes such as writing the information to the service appointment that is created.

Example Configuration – Basic

Let’s look at a simple example.

We are going to allow the Service Resource to enter a friendly message that they want the customer to see when the run the scheduling flow.

Add a new field to the Appointment Invitation object. In my example, I added a text field called additional info.

Grant field level security to the service resources that will use this and the community/guest community profiles that will be viewing this information.

Modify the Generate Appointment Invitation flow to prompt the service resource for the additional information and then save that to the Appointment Invitation object, as depicted in the screens below.

Seeing the Results

Here we see our Service Resource entering a message while running the flow to create the invitation URL.

Displaying the additional information message to the Service Resource on the confirmation screen.

Here we see the customer running the flow. They received an email with the URL (not depicted), clicked on it and landed here, with the additional information message displayed to the user.

Example Configuration – just a smidge more configured than the basic example above

What if we wanted our Service Resource to select a related Marketing Campaign and then send an invite. All service appointments created from that invite should be linked to that campaign.

Data Model, Security and Sharing Changes

  • Add a lookup relationship field on Appointment Invitation to the Campaign object
  • Add a lookup relationship field on Service Appointment to the Campaign object
  • Grant field level security on these fields to community/guest community users
  • Create sharing rule on Campaign object to share campaign data with community/guest community users

Data model changes depicted below

Flow Changes

Generate Invitation Flow

  • Add a Campaign picklist and related Record Choice Set
  • Save the selected Campaign to the Appointment Invitation Object

Generation Invitation changes depicted below

Book Appointment from Invitation Flow

  • Add an Update Record Step after the Save Appointment step to save the Campaign Id to the Service Appointment
  • For guest users, make sure you run this flow in the System Context without Sharing – Access All Data

Book Appointment from Invitation changes depicted below

Running the Flow

Service Resource

Service Resource running the Generate Appointment Invite flow and selecting a Campaign


Their experience has no change. But when the schedule an appointment, the service appointment stores the campaign id.

Service Resource

Service Resource reviewing Service Appointment. Note Campaign is associated with the service appointment.

From Chris Albanese and Chris Hartt – Scheduling 1 appointment with multiple work types


What if your business offers appointment booking for multiple services with a single appointment. For example, you offer auto services and allow customers to select from a menu of options, such as oil change, tire rotation, brake service and others. The customer may select 1 service or multiple services, and depending on the services selected, the duration of the appointment should be long enough enough to accommodate the selected services.


Above: Example of a flow screen prompting a user to select 1 or more auto services

What if you also had many store locations, and each store might offer a different menu of options. For example, the Wakefield store offers all services but the Reading store does not offer brake services.

With Salesforce Scheduler, you can accommodate this out of the box by creating many Work Type Groups to represent the combinations of services.

Consider the following table of Work Type Groups with its limitless number of combinations

Oil Change30
Tire Rotation30
Wiper Service15
Oil Change and Brakes90
Brakes and Tire Rotation90
Tire Rotation and Wiper Service45
Oil Change and Wiper Service45
Brakes and Wiper Blades75
…and many more combinations

But, this is probably not the most practical way to offer a menu of services. This document describes an alternative approach which includes 2 custom fields and a small bit of Apex code. Check out the details below.

Solution Overview

This solution allows you to run the Scheduler flows with a few minor configurations and an Apex @invocableMethod, allowing the user to select the desired services and perform precision scheduling without all of the permutations of work type groups.

The solution consists of custom fields on the Work Type object and Service Appointment object, an Apex Class, Work Type Group and Work Type data organized in a specific way and a configured flow. The flow makes use of the FilterByResourceIds parameter to ensure only those resources who have the skills needed are returned.


Work Type Groups

Create Work Type Groups only to reflect the duration of the services required. For example, Work Type Groups called 30 Minutes, 45 Minutes, 60 Minutes, 90 Minutes, etc. These are tied to Work Types with the respective durations.


Create Skills for each service required. For example, create an Oil Change Skill, a Brake Service Skill, a Tire Rotation Skill and so on.

Service Resources and Service Territories

Create Service Territories to represent the store locations and create 1 resource for each service lane or bay present in the store. Assign skills to service resources to define the services offered. For example, if the store offers oil changes and brake service, but no other services, then assign only those 2 skills to the service resources associated with the store.


Service Appointment

Add a custom text (255) field called Selected Services. This will store the id’s of the work types that were selected by the user. This can be used by a rescheduling flow (not described in this document).

Work Types

Add a custom picklist field called Service Type, with values of Service and Scheduling.

Create 2 types of Work Types:

Service Work Types

These are work types that represent each service, the skill required and the expected duration. For example,

WT Name = Oil Change, Skill Required = Oil Change, Duration = 30 Minutes, Service Type = Service

WT Name = Brakes, Skill Required = Brake Service, Duration = 60 Minutes, Service Type = Service

These work types are not assigned to any work types groups or service territory work types.

Scheduling Work Types

These are work types that represent a total duration, have no skills required and the expected duration. For example,

WT Name = 30 Minute Service, Duration = 30 Minutes, Service Type = Scheduling

WT Name = 60 Minute Service, Duration = 60 Minutes, Service Type = Scheduling

These work types are assigned to Work Type Groups (see screenshot below) and they are assigned to service territory work types.


Pic above: Work types for Service (with Skills required) and work types for Scheduling (no Skills required)


Pic Above: Work Type Groups just for Scheduling

Apex Class

An Apex class is used to determine the scheduling Work Type Group which is just large enough to cover the list of input Services. It accepts a list of Work Type ids and returns a Work Type Group id and a text field containing a comma separated list of Service Resource ids who have the skills required for the input Services.

The code for the apex class and a test class is contained in the package file at the end of this document.


Modify the Inbound New Guest Appointment flow to prompt for the services required (service work types), call the apex class and then present the list of time slots available.


Pic Above: Flow with new steps added to prompt for services and call the apex class.


Pic Above: New Screen which prompts for services. Select services is a picklist tied to a record choice set which selects only Work Types where Service Type = Service.


Call to Apex which returns the applicable work type group id with the duration large enough to accommodate the selected services. Also set the FilterByResourceIds field, which will be used in the select location and select time slots screens.


Video of it in action

Check out the short video below.


Try it yourself in your own sandbox. The custom fields, Apex Class, Test Classes and an example of a configured Inbound New Guest Appointment flow are included in this repo.

Github Repository


FilterbyResourceIds limitation

Since FilterbyResourceIds is limited to 50 service resource ids, you should ensure that you pass in a service territory id to the Apex Method so as not to exceed this limit.

Modify line 24 of the Apex code to select the specific service territory selected by the user.

listST = [select id from serviceterritory where isactive = true];

Lines 50-56 contain code to limit the total number of service resource ids to a maximum of 50. If the limit of 50 changes in a future release, you should change this code to reflect the new limit.

Rescheduling Flow

A rescheduling flow is not included here. If rescheduling is part of your use case, use the Service Appointment custom field created in this package to retrieve the services selected by the user when the appointment was scheduled. Add the custom screen and call to the Apex method to retrieve the corresponding scheduling Work Type Group, similar to how the flow in the package has been configured.

From Adwait & Mrityunjoy Chowdhury: Reverse Map Service Appointment to the appropriate shift

Shift is one of the major additions made in Salesforce Scheduler, It provides the user with enormous flexibility and makes the entire process of appointment scheduling less cumbersome. The diagram below shows the interaction between Shift and various other entities involved in scheduling a Service Appointment.

Blank diagram2.jpg

A Service Territory Member can have multiple Shifts associated with it and as a result the time slot selected for the Service Appointment can fall between more than one overlapping shifts (considering both the required and primary Service Resources).

In the following sections we will figure out a way to reverse map all the associated Shifts with corresponding Service Appointment.

Creating a custom object

For completing the purpose of reverse mapping Shift with Service Appointment a custom object(Service appointment shift) is used as a junction object. It comprises of the following custom fields:-

  • ServiceAppointnmentId – Referring to a Service Appointment.
  • ShiftId – Referring to a Shift whose startTime and endTime completely encloses the Service Appointment’s time slot.
  • Modified – A boolean flag to help backtrack all the updates made to Service Appointment.Only the records with the flag value false should be considered as reliable entries.
  • Canceled – A boolean flag which is set to true only when the associated Service Appointment is canceled.
Blank diagram.jpeg

As evident from the design proposed whenever a Service Appointment is scheduled we need to obtain all the Shifts associated with the Service Appointment.For each associated Shift, one record comprising of ServiceAppointmentId,ShiftId

and Modified(initially false) must be made.

For achieving our goal of reverse mapping we will be writing triggers on two entities:

  • Service Appointment
  • Assigned Resource

Creating a Service Appointment

We must do the reverse mapping the moment a Service Appointment is created.Whenever a Service Appointment is created necessary inserts are made in Assigned Resource and this will invoke the trigger that we will be writing for Assigned Resource .


Let us first discuss the pseudocode for triggers when new Service Appointments are created.

  • Create a trigger which runs after inserts are made in Assigned Resource.
  • Fetch all the linked Service Appointments using the just inserted Assigned Resource records.
  • Check for any previous entries for obtained Service Appointments in the custom object
    and for all those records set the Modified as true.
  • Design a map of Service Appointment and all the required resources for that appointment.
  • Loop through all the Service Appointments in the map and obtain the associated Shifts of the Service Resource.
  • Do the inserts for Service Appointment and Shift mapping records.

Updating a Service Appointment

Whenever a Service Appointment is modified we can make changes in the time slot and the required resources of the Service Appointment.Once a Service Appointment is updated we must set the Modified field for all the records of this Service Appointment in the custom object to true and obtain new associated Shifts. Let’s have a look at the possible scenarios and the way we are handling it.

  • Deletion of required SR from Appointment(will invoke an after delete trigger on Assigned Resource)
  • Addition of required SR to Appointment(will invoke an after insert trigger on Assigned Resource)
  • Moving of SR from required to optional resource(will invoke an after update trigger on Assigned Resource)
  • Moving of SR from optional to required resource(will invoke an after update trigger on Assigned Resource)
  • Change in Appointment start time and/or end time
  • Change in Appointment WTG/WT (Appointment duration)
  • Changing the time slot at the same time altering the Assigned Resources.

For these cases we will be using one update and a delete trigger on Assigned Resource wherein we implement a similar logic as mentioned above.

Disclaimer: The following code is meant to be verbose and easily understandable from a Salesforce Developer perspective. Given a choice between performance vs readability I have strived for the latter. It is a proof of concept to demonstrate the feature and should be modified and tested thoroughly as per different data shapes and existing code in the org.

trigger getassociatedshifts on AssignedResource (after insert,after update,after delete) {

   /* fetching all the linked service appointments from the trigger */

   List<ServiceAppointment> AllAppointments = new List<ServiceAppointment>();

   if(Trigger.isDelete) {

       List<String> AffectedAppointments = new List<String>();

       For(AssignedResource a:Trigger.old) {



       AllAppointments = [Select Id,ServiceTerritoryId,SchedStartTime,SchedEndTime,WorkTypeId from ServiceAppointment where Id In :AffectedAppointments];

   } else {

       AllAppointments = [Select Id,ServiceTerritoryId,SchedStartTime,SchedEndTime,WorkTypeId from ServiceAppointment where Id In (Select ServiceAppointmentId from AssignedResource where Id In :Trigger.New)];



     check for any previous entries for obtained service appointments in the custom object

     and for all those records set the modified flag as true


   List<Service_appointment_shift__c> ServiceAppointmentShiftToUpdate =new List<Service_appointment_shift__c>();

   For(Service_appointment_shift__c all:[Select id,modified__c from Service_appointment_shift__c where Service_Appointment__c In :AllAppointments]) {

       all.Modified__c = true;



   update ServiceAppointmentShiftToUpdate;

   /* Making call to helper class for necessary inserts */



Helper class

public class ServiceAppointmentShiftMapping {

   public static void InsertNewRecords(List<ServiceAppointment> AllAppointments) {

       /*creating a map of ServiceAppointmentId and List<ServiceResourceId> */

       Map<Id,List<Id> > ServiceAppointmentToAllServiceResources = new Map<Id,List<Id> >();

       /*for creating the map we need list of required resource and service appointment */

       List<AssignedResource> ServiceResourcetoServiceAppointment =new List<AssignedResource>();

       ServiceResourceToServiceAppointment = [Select ServiceResourceId,ServiceAppointmentId from AssignedResource where ServiceAppointmentId in:AllAppointments

                AND  IsRequiredResource = True];

       for(AssignedResource temp:ServiceResourceToServiceAppointment) {

           /* check if the key already exists or not*/

           if(ServiceAppointmentToAllServiceResources.containsKey(temp.ServiceAppointmentId)) {

               List<Id> ResourceList = ServiceAppointmentToAllServiceResources.get(temp.ServiceAppointmentId);


               /*insert the key value pair*/


           } else {

               ServiceAppointmentToAllServiceResources.put(temp.ServiceAppointmentId,new List<Id>{temp.ServiceResourceId});



       /*All the new records for custom object will be stored in this*/ 

       List<Service_appointment_shift__c> AllNewEntries =new List<Service_appointment_shift__c>(); 

       For(ServiceAppointment current:AllAppointments) {

           List<Id> ResourceId = new List<Id>();

           /*obtain the list of resources from the map */

           ResourceId = ServiceAppointmentToAllServiceResources.get(current.Id);

           //fetch associated shits with wtg and without wtg

           List<Shift> probableShifts= new List<Shift>();

           probableShifts =[Select Id from Shift where ServiceResourceId IN :ResourceId

                            AND ServiceTerritoryId = :current.ServiceTerritoryId

                            AND StartTime <= :current.SchedStartTime

                            AND EndTime >= :current.SchedEndTime

                            AND Status =’Confirmed’

                            AND WorkTypeGroupId IN (Select WorkTypeGroupId from WorkTypeGroupMember where WorkTypeId =:current.WorkTypeId)


           List<Shift> probableShiftsNoWtg= new List<Shift>();

           probableShiftsNoWtg =[Select Id from Shift where ServiceResourceId IN :ResourceId

                                 AND ServiceTerritoryId = :current.ServiceTerritoryId

                                 AND StartTime <= :current.SchedStartTime

                                 AND EndTime >= :current.SchedEndTime

                                 AND Status =’Confirmed’

                                 AND WorkTypeGroupId =”


           /* add all the records to be inserted in the custom object in a list*/

           for(Shift a:probableShifts) {

               Service_appointment_shift__c next = new Service_appointment_shift__c(Service_Appointment__c = current.Id,Shift__c = a.Id,Modified__c = false);



           for(Shift a:probableShiftsNoWtg) {

               Service_appointment_shift__c next = new Service_appointment_shift__c(Service_Appointment__c = current.Id,Shift__c = a.Id,Modified__c = false);




        Insert AllNewEntries;



  • Service Appointment is canceled

trigger cancelServiceAppointment on ServiceAppointment (after update)



     This trigger will be called whenever a service appointment is update(time slot is

     changed,assigned resources are changed,status is changed etc)

     but the only purpose of this trigger is to handle the case when the service appointment

     is canceled



      All the Service Appointments that are canceled.


   List<ServiceAppointment> changed = new List<ServiceAppointment>();

   For(Integer i=0;i<Trigger.New.size();++i) {

       ServiceAppointment justUpdated = Trigger.New[i];


          checking the status of updated Service Appointment


       if(justUpdated.Status == ‘Canceled’) {





       Setting the canceled flag and modified flag of the obtained service Appointment in custom object


   List<Service_appointment_shift__c> ServiceAppointmentShiftToUpdate =new List<Service_appointment_shift__c>();

   For(Service_appointment_shift__c all:[Select id,modified__c from Service_appointment_shift__c where Service_Appointment__c In :changed]) {

       all.Canceled__c =true;

       all.Modified__c = true;



   /* updating the records */

   update ServiceAppointmentShiftToUpdate;


From Apeksh Dave: Create Zoom Meetings from Salesforce (with Scheduler)


A customer of Salesforce is looking to integrate with Zoom and the Online Meeting capabilities from Salesforce using Portal / Internal screens. The use case is fairly straightforward, as a customer of a bank, I want to schedule an online meeting with my advisor and discuss my accounts. The technology the bank wants to use is Zoom.

The technology usage behind this particular demo is to simply create a meeting in Zoom via an API which returns a URL that parties can click on to launch Zoom( either browser or desktop ) and have a meeting. There is a lot more that can be done, but this integration is to show the possibilities with the connection

Technology Utilized

Listened below are the main technologies and configurations used in the demo preparation.

Main SaaS Tech Stacks

Demo Setup Technology

  • Zoom Development Account
  • Salesforce Org
  • Postman – To easily test the setup and API’s
  • <optional> Visual Code – Used to write and deploy code
  • Apex Classes
    • Invocable Methods setup to make available in Flows
    • Test Classes
  • Auth Provider Setup in Salesforce
  • Named Credentials
  • Salesforce Flows – To provide the screen navigation, call Zoom to get the meeting, and update the appropriate records.

Demo Flow High Level

This section describes the general flow of the demo from start to finish when showing to the customer. This is a specific flow for the customer this demo was prepared for. You can tailor or make your own flow(s) for your customer.

  • Customer goes to the portal to schedule a meeting, using the Salesforce Scheduler.
  • This demo has an authenticated flow, there is a person account associated with the demo.
  • Enter the required information from the screen
    • Click by previously scheduled service appointments or search for a banker.
    • Click Next
    • Click on a Work Type Group → Select the type => Click Next
    • Select Video Call
    • Enter a address → San Francisco → Select a branch
    • Choose a date in scheduler
    • The call to Zoom is done at this point and a URL is returned to the “Additional Information” Section. Note, this could be put anywhere but for the purpose of the meeting we chose here.
    • Click on next and a new Service Appointment is created with the Meeting URL in a custom field that can be accessed to launch a Zoom meeting.

The integration behind the scene created a Zoom meeting valid link that can be clicked on to start a Zoom meeting. This utilized the Zoom API, OAuth/Open ID authentication/authorization, and Apex Callout to create and return the meeting.

Demo Details

This section will describe the setup needed to execute the demo. What is described is the particular flow used to validate and test the integration. The entire section for Postman is completely optional, but it is suggested to do this to validate and debug. In our case, it was invaluable in determining the exact headers to place into the API. In the initial development, Postman was first used outside of Salesforce to ensure the API format was correct and the authentication/auth was setup correctly in Zoom.

Zoom Setup

The first piece that is needed is a Zoom Developer Account.  Please note you cannot use a Salesforce Zoom account as they have disabled permission to use the API.  Best bet create Personal Zoom account with personal ( no salesforce account) or working with your client account that allows to create meeting via API

  • Click on Create under OAuth.
  • Name it, choose an account level app and toggle off the publish button like this.
  • Next screen
    • Screen will show the client key, client secret. Copy & store in a secure place. You will need these in the Salesforce setup.
    • Populate the redirect url and add the allow list.
  • Enter developer name.
  • Scope is meeting:write:admin
  • Press install.

Setup Salesforce/Postman Application in Zoom

Salesforce Setup

This section describes the Salesforce Setup needed to access Zoom API meetings. It is strongly advised to setup Postman first to validate and test the API as well as get familiar with the API before jumping into Apex coding setup. This section will consist of Authentication setup, the Named Credential, and the Apex code needed to create a Zoom meeting and retrieve a URL. Additionally, this will provide the callback referenced in the Zoom section which will be needed to complete the Authentication section in Zoom.

Auth. Provider Setup

The first step is to create the Authorization Provider configuration to connect to Zoom. You will need the Secret Key(Value) from the Certificate setup in Zoom and the application id.

  1. Enter Salesforce Setup → Auth Providers → New.
  2. Choose Open ID Connect from the Provider Type drop-down.
  3. Name the Auth Provider.
  4. URL Suffix → Can make the same as the name.
  5. Consumer Key → This is the client key in Zoom.
  6. Consumer Secret → This is the client secret in Zoom.
  1. Authorization Endpoint URL – see screen above.
  2. Token Endpoint URL – see screen above.
  3. Default Scopes <optional> – meeting:write:admin
  4. Make sure this option is checked: Send client credentials in header.
  5. Use the defaults for the remainder.
  6. Save.
  7. Click on the newly defined Auth Provider to open it up.
  8. Copy the Callback URL that is shown in the Salesforce Configuration. If you have Experience Cloud setup and you are using those domains, then add those callback URLs as well to the Zoom Dev configuration.
  9. Take the callback URL you copied above and paste back in the Zoom redirect url & allow list. (Use the exact same word to word, no space.)

Named Credential

Creating a named credential will perform the authentication to Zoom and do the OAuth validation. Here is where the Zoom Authenticated App is used to validate the OAuth connection. (I set mine to auto approve.) It will prompt you to login to your instance of Zoom. The login will be the Zoom Developer login/id created during the setup of the developer instance.

  1. In Setup → Named Credentials, click New.
  2. Enter the label and the URL of the API Endpoint you wish to access. In this case, the full API is used for the onLineMeeting for Delegated access. The application access has a different signature
  3. Identify Type will be Named Principal.
  4. Auth Protocol will be OAuth 2.0.
  5. Select the Auth Provider created in the previous step.
  6. Scope: very important! The scope here will match the scope you created in Zoom for the application. It is space delimited.
    • meeting:write:admin
  7. Click on Generate Authorization Header.
  8. Check on Start Auth Flow on Save.
  9. Generate Auth Header is checked.
  10. Click Save. This will trigger the actual connection to Zoom and validate the Authentication.
  11. When you Save, the OAuth flow will initiate.
  • Zoom Login Screen will popup.
  • Login.
  1. If successful, you will see Authenticated in the Authentication Status in Salesforce. If it fails, you will get a failure screen from Zoom.  Common Issues:
  • Used the wrong secret key or id. Double check the values in the Auth. The Providers are correct.
  • URL Endpoint is invalid. Check your URL Endpoint. (Using Postman first helps avoid this issue.)

Salesforce Application Code

This section will review the Apex application code needed to make the Rest API call to setup a Zoom meeting and retrieve the meeting URL from the Zoom Server. The code is not production quality but instead is a sample to prove the concepts. The current iteration does not accommodate error handling in a meaningful way nor does it do much more than create a meeting. The goal of this good is to demonstrate the basic connection for the customer and proof of concept the meeting invites. The sample code will be in two parts, the first part is a test class that can be used to validate the connection and result. Once that is working, then the 2nd class uses @InvocableMethod so that it can be used in flows. Obviously this can be tailored however desired.

This section does not instruct how to setup command line tools, deploy the source, or other development tasks. It is assumed the reader understands how to deploy, run the developer tools/debugger in Salesforce.

Test Apex Class – Simple Class to Create the Meeting utilizing Named Credentials

public class TestZoomApi {

   /* Test Method for Unit Testing Connection */

   public static String getMeetingUrl()


       HttpRequest req = new HttpRequest();

       Http http = new Http();

       //Setup the Endpoint and append the name of the file





       req.setHeader(‘Accept-Encoding’,’gzip, deflate, br’);

       //Setup the JSON Body – in the test just set a subject, can add more through Postman or other tests

       req.setBody(‘{“topic”: “test create meeting”,”type”: “1”}’);       


       System.debug(‘Body: ‘ + req.getBody());

       System.debug(‘Endpoint Value: ‘+ req.getEndpoint());

       System.debug(‘Request: ‘ + req);

       HTTPResponse res = http.send(req);

       System.debug(‘Response Body: ‘+res.getBody());

       /* Parse Response */

       JSONParser parser = JSON.createParser(res.getBody());

       String webLink;

       webLink = ‘ZoomNotSetup’;

       while (parser.nextToken() != null) {

       if ((parser.getCurrentToken() == JSONToken.FIELD_NAME) &&

       (parser.getText() == ‘join_url’)) {


           webLink = parser.getText();

           System.debug(‘join_url= ‘ + webLink);



   return webLink;



Common Issues/Errors

  1. Zoom will return a 201 in the HTTP Response. This is a success. It is documented in the API.
  2. HTTP Error 500 – Internal Server Error
    1. Notice the headers that are set. The Zoom documentation does not state it explicitly, but in our testing we found that the 2 accept lines need to be in the header when sending the request. You need to add the gzip, etc and the “*/*” accept lines.
    2. 401 – The 401 unauthorized generally means the scope is incorrect in the Named Credential, or in the Named Credential and/or the Zoom setup. Make sure the permissions are correct and the scope is space delimited.
    3. 403 – Forbidden – This occurs when the secret keys are incorrect. You should have fixed this when you saved the name credential so it shouldn’t show up.
  3. Note: When using the Apex Debugger – Look for the debug line to joinWebURL populated with a long string for the meeting. It will start with something like this: 12:40:52:477 USER_DEBUG [37]|DEBUG|joinWebUrl=

Salesforce InvocableMethod Class Utilizing the Apex Code and Callout

This is the actual code used in the demonstration. This code is accessible in the Flow Builder inside of Salesforce as an Apex Action.

global class GetZoomMeetingURLwithInput {

   @InvocableMethod(label=’Get Zoom Meeting URL with Input’ description=’Returns a meeting URL For Zoom’)

   global static List<String> makeApiCalloutwithInput(List<List<String>> inputZoomsParms)


       HttpRequest req = new HttpRequest();

       Http http = new Http();

       //Setup the Endpoint and append the name of the file





       req.setHeader(‘Accept-Encoding’,’gzip, deflate, br’);

        /* Setup the Parameters for Meetings, subject, etc. */

       // Note: The initial demo only utilized the title, further development can use other inputs.

       system.debug(‘Array size  =’ + inputZoomsParms.get(0).size()); 

       String inTitle = ‘”‘ + inputZoomsParms.get(0).get(0) + ‘”‘;

       system.debug(‘inTitle =’ + inTitle);   

       String inAgenda = ‘”‘ + inputZoomsParms.get(0).get(0) + ‘”‘;

       system.debug(‘inAgenda =’ + inAgenda);              

       String inPwd = ‘”‘ + inputZoomsParms.get(0).get(1) + ‘”‘;

       system.debug(‘inPwd =’ + inPwd);               

       String inStart = ‘”‘ + inputZoomsParms.get(0).get(2) + ‘”‘;

       system.debug(‘inStart =’ + inStart);               

       String inEnd = ‘”‘ + inputZoomsParms.get(0).get(3) + ‘”‘;

       system.debug(‘inEnd =’ + inEnd);

       //Setup the JSON Body – in the test just set a subject, can add more through Postman or other tests

       // req.setBody(‘{“topic”:’ + inTitle + ,”type”: “1”}’);       

       req.setBody(‘{“topic”: “test create meeting”,”type”: “1”}’);       


       System.debug(‘Body: ‘ + req.getBody());

       System.debug(‘Endpoint Value: ‘+ req.getEndpoint());

       System.debug(‘Request: ‘ + req);

       HTTPResponse res = http.send(req);

       System.debug(‘Response Body: ‘+res.getBody());

       /* Parse Response */

       JSONParser parser = JSON.createParser(res.getBody());

       String webLink;

       webLink = ‘ZoomNotSetup’;

       while (parser.nextToken() != null) {

       if ((parser.getCurrentToken() == JSONToken.FIELD_NAME) &&

       (parser.getText() == ‘join_url’)) {


           webLink = parser.getText();

           System.debug(‘join_url= ‘ + webLink);



   // Apex Actions Return. The method signature for an invocable method requires a List of Strings to be returned.

   return new List<String>{webLink};



Salesforce User Experience Setup

This section is optional but describes how the above code can be accessed in the low-code building tools inside of Salesforce.

This section in a flow shows how this action is called to retrieve a URL for the Zoom Meeting and then assigns it to a Record (such as the Service Appointment, and/ or its associated Event) in Salesforce. A larger flow will then do further processing as part of a full scheduling flow. The takeaway is that the Apex Code above is an option to drag and drop into the low code builder and use it when running a flow. It could also be embedded within a Lightning Web Component(LWC) and used in other places. Alternatively, it can be accessed from another Apex Class to get the required information.


Postman Setup

This section describes how to setup Postman to access Zoom APIs and test the API integration outside of Salesforce in a developer-centric manner. This is completely optional, but oftentimes if it works in Postman and not in another application or Salesforce, you can see what is different in Postman versus the other applications. This tutorial assumes the reader is familiar with Postman and has downloaded the application or is using the web version. This document will use the desktop installation for reference. This section does not require knowledge of the Salesforce Setup. We recommend starting with Postman before the setup in Salesforce.

Postman Collection – use version 2 link below. (Do NOT use v1.)

Download the Zoom Postman Collection

To make life easier, download the Postman Collection already created for Zoom as plenty of examples. To do so:

Setup Postman Authentication

Setting up Authentication is straightforward and will require the client id and secret key from the Zoom setup done previously. Additionally, you will need to add the callback URL to the Authentication section in Zoom. You also need to setup Environment variables as part of this step.

Setup Zoom Dev account with Postman OAuth App

  • Click on Create under OAuth.
  • Name it, choose an account level app and toggle off the publish button like this.
  1. ClientID – will be the Application ID of the App you created in the Zoom dev account.
  2. Client Secret – will be the Client Secret in Zoom dev account.
  3. Make sure the Redirect url and Allow List are exactly this
  1. Enter developer name.
  2. Scope is
    • meeting:write:admin
  3. Press install.

Setup Postman authentication

  • Setup Zoom environment like this, and:
  • Edit api_key with Client ID from Zoom dev account.
  • Edit api_secret with client secret from Zoom dev account.
  • Go to Zoom Api. Right click. Edit, and:
    • Edit setup variable with baseurl.
  • Edit Authorization with appropriate info as shown below.
    • Make sure the callback url is exactly the same in the Zoom Dev account.
  • Get a new Access Token.
  • You will have to login in the Zoom account.

Get/Create and Run the Zoom Online Meeting API


“topic”: “test create5 meeting”,
“type”: “2”,
“start_time”: “2022-02-15T10:00:00”,
“duration”: “30”,
“registrants_email_notification”: “true”

  • Authentication – inherited from the parent.
  • Set this:

From Ankit Srivastava: Report available Appointment Slots by Resource

Salesforce Scheduler gives tools needed to simplify appointment scheduling in Salesforce. We can create a personalized experience by scheduling customer appointments in person, or by phone or video; with the right person at the right place and time. One of the strong feature of the product is its ability to manage availability of multiple Service Resources for various Work Types across multiple Service Territories.

Now the biggest question is if there is an out of the box Salesforce Report that can provide a list of service appointment slots available for all or a specific set of service resources. The Answer is NO.

So, how do we solve for it?

Salesforce Scheduler calculates the availability of a service resource at runtime on demand (when a user is scheduling an appointment). Salesforce Scheduler uses multiple entities along with data from external systems to calculate availability data. This information is NOT stored anywhere to report on.

To solve for the reporting Question – we need some complex level of customization. This can be achieved using the power of the Salesforce Scheduler and Salesforce platform to generate reports on Service Resource’s availability information.

Approach we will use in this blog post

Salesforce Scheduler provides the LxScheduler namespace which offers the apex method getAppointmentCandidates which provides the availability information. We will use this method to

  • retrieve the information using Apex
  • dump the retrieved information into a custom object that we will create and
  • report on top of the custom object

Create Custom Object – Appointment Slots

Let us create a custom object, “Appointment Slots” with these custom fields to store availability information

  • Service Resource (lookup)
  • Service Territory (lookup)
  • Work Type Group (lookup)
  • Start Date (Date/Time)
  • End Date (Date/Time)
  • Remaining Appointments (Integer, default value = 1)

Enable reporting for this custom object.

Query and Dump retrieved information into the Custom Object

We can use following batch apex to populate availability information in our custom object.
P.S. Apex governor limits will apply on this code (


class Slot {
Datetime startTime;
Datetime endTime;
List<String> resources;
String territoryId;


public without sharing class ReportDump implements Database.Batchable<sObject>{
public Database.QueryLocator start(Database.BatchableContext BC){
String query = 'SELECT Id FROM ServiceResource where isActive = true';
return Database.getQueryLocator(query);

public void execute(Database.BatchableContext BC, List<ServiceResource> srList){
Integer DUMP_DURATION = 30;
String ACCOUNT_ID = '001xx000003GYQRAA4';
String SCHEDULING_POLICY = '0Vrxx0000004C92';
//Hardcoding WTG for now
List<String> wtgs = new List<String>();

List<Appointment_Slots__c> slots = new List<Appointment_Slots__c>();

for (ServiceResource sr : srList){
//Find all territories he works in
List<ServiceTerritoryMember> stms = [Select Id, ServiceTerritoryId
from ServiceTerritoryMember
where ServiceResourceId = :sr.Id];
List<String> territories = new List<String>();
for (ServiceTerritoryMember stm : stms){

for (String wtg : wtgs){
lxscheduler.GetAppointmentCandidatesInput input = new lxscheduler.GetAppointmentCandidatesInputBuilder().setWorkTypeGroupId(wtg).setTerritoryIds(territories).setStartTime('yyyy-MM-dd\'T\'HH:mm:ssZ', 'America/New_York')).setEndTime('yyyy-MM-dd\'T\'HH:mm:ssZ', 'America/New_York')).setAccountId(ACCOUNT_ID).setSchedulingPolicyId(SCHEDULING_POLICY).setApiVersion(Double.valueOf('54.0')).build();
String response = lxscheduler.SchedulerResources.getAppointmentCandidates(input);

List<Slot> objs = (List<Slot>)JSON.deserialize(response, List<Slot>.class);
for (Slot obj : objs){
Appointment_Slots__c slot = new Appointment_Slots__c();
slot.Start_Date__c = obj.startTime;
slot.End_Date__c = obj.endTime;
slot.Service_Territory__c = obj.territoryId;
slot.Service_Resource__c = sr.Id;
slot.Work_Type_Group__c = wtg;
insert slots;

public void finish(Database.BatchableContext BC){


Create a Report using the Custom Object

Create a Salesforce report using this custom object. Refer – on how to create reports. Here is a sample matrix report we created which reports a Service resources total available hours at a Service location for an appointment topic / template – and this is how it looks.

Truncating records in custom Object

The example quoted above requires the Appointment Slots object to be empty in order to calculate the Service Resources availability. Ensure you truncate the data in the custom object before running the above batch job. Please refer this help article on Truncating Salesforce Obejcts

You can also use apex to delete all records from the object as shown at

From Ankit Srivastava: Restraining Shifts within the Service Territory’s Operating Hours

In the Spring ‘22 release, Scheduler introduced Shift Rostering Management which can be used to setup working hours for resources.

Shifts is a paradigm changing update to Salesforce Scheduler product. It eases pain of setting adhoc or non-recurring time slots for Service Resources to work. It also gives flexibility to work outside Service Territory’s operating hours.

One of the advantages of using Shifts is the ability to use Custom reports to report on working hours of a resource but that goes away if we allow resources to setup shifts beyond the working hours of a Territory. So here one would want to restrict the Service Resource to only create Shifts within the working hours of a Service Territory. This way, you could use create a custom report on the Shift record to understand the working hours of previous weeks or months.

Another scenario where this could be a need is when we have two types of Service Resources:

  1. Service Resources who work within the constraints of their Service Territory’s Operating Hour
  2. Service Resources who can go beyond their Service Territory’s Operating Hours. For eg: contractors (independent wealth managers) who can even take important appointments after working hours of the Service Territory (Branch)

Selectively restraining working hours of resources

First we need to define which resources can work beyond their branches working hours.

For this we are going to simply add a custom field to Service Resource of type boolean. Let’s call this field OvertimeEnabled for now.

If OvertimeEnabled is True then the Service Resource can work extra hours else they cannot.

Data Model

Next we need to set our Scheduling Policy such that we don’t restrict Shifts as per Service Territory’s Operating Hour by default. For this we will se up policy to use Shifts but uncheck the box ‘Use service territory’s operating hours with shifts’

Now we can add a trigger on Shift entity which runs before insert and update on the entity. In this trigger we will check validate that shift timings are within Branch’s Operating Hours only for resources who have OvertimeEnabled flag set to false.

Sample Code

trigger ShiftValidation on Shift (before insert, before update) {
List<Shift> shifts =;

Set<String> sr = new Set<String>();
for(Shift shift: shifts) {

List<ServiceResource> extendedSr = [SELECT Id FROM ServiceResource WHERE OvertimeEnabled__c = False AND Id IN :sr];

Set<String> srIds = new Set<String>();
for(ServiceResource sr1: extendedSr) {

Set<Shift> confirmedShifts = new Set<Shift>();
Set<String> territoryIds = new Set<String>();
//We will only run this validation for Shifts with Status Category = "Confirmed" AND Service Resource can work extended hours
for(Shift shift: shifts) {
if(shift.StatusCategory == 'Confirmed' && srIds.contains(shift.ServiceResourceId)) {

if(confirmedShifts.size() > 0) {
//Get all Service Territory IDs along with their OperatingHourId
ServiceTerritory[] territoryIdsWithOperatingHours = [SELECT Id, OperatingHoursId FROM ServiceTerritory WHERE Id IN :territoryIds];

Set<String> operatingHourIds = new Set<String>();
for(ServiceTerritory st: territoryIdsWithOperatingHours) {
//Service Territory may not have Operating Hour defined
if(st.OperatingHoursId != null) {

//Get Timeslot information for all Operating Hours got in previous step. We disregard all STM level concurrent timeslots (Shifts with MaxAppointments set to 1)
TimeSlot[] timeSlots = [SELECT Id, DayOfWeek, StartTime, EndTime, OperatingHoursId FROM TimeSlot WHERE MaxAppointments = 1 AND OperatingHoursId IN :operatingHourIds];

//Complex data structure to store Working hours for all Service territories. We will store empty inner map in case Service Territory does not have Operating Hour defined
Map<String, Map<String, TimeSlot>> serviceTerritoryWithTimeSlotsPerDay = new Map<String, Map<String, TimeSlot>>();

for(ServiceTerritory territory: territoryIdsWithOperatingHours) {
Map<String, TimeSlot> timeSlotsPerDay = new Map<String, TimeSlot>();

for(TimeSlot timeSlot: timeSlots) {
if(timeslot.OperatingHoursId == territory.OperatingHoursId) {
timeSlotsPerDay.put(TimeSlot.DayOfWeek.substring(0,3), TimeSlot);
serviceTerritoryWithTimeSlotsPerDay.put(territory.Id, timeSlotsPerDay);

//Main validation logic for all confirmed shifts
for(Shift s: confirmedShifts) {
String dayOfShiftStart = ((Datetime) s.StartTime).format('E').substring(0,3);
String dayOfShiftEnd = ((Datetime) s.EndTime).format('E').substring(0,3);

Map<String, TimeSlot> slots = serviceTerritoryWithTimeSlotsPerDay.get(s.ServiceTerritoryId);

if(dayOfShiftStart != dayOfShiftEnd) {
s.addError('Shift should be within Service Territory\'s Operating hours ');
} else if(slots.get(dayOfShiftStart) == null || slots.get(dayOfShiftEnd) == null) {
s.addError('Operating Hours for Service Territory not set up correctly');
}else if(s.StartTime.time() < slots.get(dayOfShiftStart).StartTime || s.EndTime.time() > slots.get(dayOfShiftEnd).EndTime) {
s.addError('Shift should be within Service Territory\'s Operating hours ');

P.S. For this code we have considered that Service Territory’s OH are in same timezone as shifts being created.

From Faith Kindle, Mrityunjoy Chowdhury & Sunil Nandipati: Accessing Inbound Guest Appointment Scheduler Flow from External Websites by Un-authenticated users

Context & Preface

Businesses and Organizations which provide services have to provide a way for their customers to request appointments with the provider’s service resources. These experiences are expected to be easy to access without any kind of account creation and no authentication involved. Examples can be booking an appointment with a hair stylist at your favorite Salon, looking up for a dentist for a regular cleaning, reaching out to a financial advisor at a bank near your home.

To implement un-authenticated user experiences, the best way in Salesforce is to use the Guest user profile that comes with any Experience Sites (Earlier Communities). Experience sites can be built with public pages where end-users can access the application built using these guest user access. Refer this knowledge article for more information around Guest users –

From a high level, there are three design options to allow un-authenticated Guest users to access Scheduler features and functionality. These design patterns are as follows and illustrated below.

  1. API level: this pattern offers the most flexibility but requires the most investment in time as everything is custom built. You will host and build your interface entirely on your (external to Salesforce) web site, and create a fully custom-developed user interface with custom code to accesses Scheduler on the back end via Scheduler REST APIs.
    If you are wondering about how all of this works in the context an UNAUTHENTICATED (or guest) user experience — that’s a great question! The Scheduler API can be accessed from an unauthenticated type perspective using the oAuth SAML bearer assertion flow, which uses connected app to request/grant an access token for that “guest user” (unauthenticated) type experience. You will use a connected app associated with a particular profile to grant that profile permissions to access what is needed. This is similar to the way Salesforce Experience Cloud Guest User leverages the Guest User Profile & Guest User to allow unauthenticated type access to Salesforce objects and the Scheduler Inbound flow.
  2. Component Level: this is the option that we will be going over in this blog. Using this pattern you will leverage Salesforce Experience Cloud/ public sites along with out-of-the-box or custom cloned versions of pre-built Scheduler flows. Scheduler flows are flexible and can be customized in a number of ways, including extending to the Scheduler APIs from within the flow. With this design pattern you will access Scheduler flows from your (external to Salesforce) business web site and remain on your web site’s URL.
  3. Page Level: this level of access offers a relatively quick time to market and can be achieved in a number of ways”:
    • Leveraging the end to end Salesforce footprint, offering Scheduler capability as part of an Experience Cloud community.
    • Hosting your Scheduler flow on a public-facing Salesforce Site, and pointing to that site from your site’s menu. You can register a customized domain within Salesforce to use with your site to make the user flow as seamless and branded as possible.

Most business prefer NOT to have too many websites / links and prefer to have everything hosted on their business websites. In such scenarios the appointment scheduling experience needs to be embedded into the business’s website. To implement such user experiences, components build in Salesforce application need to be used outside Salesforce. Salesforce offers a mechanism called LightningOut to provide such experiences.

Configuration steps to be executed

  1. First and foremost thing is to have a Guest user Profile. Create a Digital Experience Site and make the Site available for public access. This can be enabled by navigating to the Site → Builder settings → General and Turning this feature ON.
  1. Navigating to the ‘Guest User Profile’ by clicking on the Profile link and exploring the Object settings, you will notice that the System ONLY allows users to either CREATE or READ on most of the objects. Configure this ‘Guest User Profile’ as mentioned in the help article –
  2. Create a Flow using the ‘Scheduler Scheduler Flow Template – Inbound New Guest Appointment’. Customize the flow as per your needs or use the template as is. OOTB template will create a lead and assign the service appointment against the lead.
  1. Most of all, for everything to work perfectly, configuring the Scheduler application using the guided setup. Navigate to the hamburger icon to see all applications, look for ‘Salesforce Scheduler Setup Assistant’ and complete the configuration steps

Understanding the Setup

The appointment time slots are determined based on your Org Setup followed by Salesforce Scheduler configurations and data setup. Ensure you have validated all these and setup configurations and data correctly

  1. Organization Setup-
  • Verify the Organization Wide Defaults for external access
    • For the below set of objects either set them to Public Read Only
      • Work Type
      • Work Type Group
      • Service Resource
      • Service Territory
      • User
    • Or extend access to the records by Creating sharing rules for guest users (Determine which records to expose to your Community’s guests and decide on a right sharing method – group based, role based or criteria-based record-sharing rules to match your business processes)
    • NOTE: Without defining sharing rules for guests, unauthenticated users can’t access the records required for the Inbound New Guest Appointment flow with Embedded Services hosted in a community or external site.
  1. Scheduler Application Setup – Ensure you have setup data for these objects
  • What services are offered by the Organization
    • WorkTypeGroup
    • WorkType
    • WorkTypeGroupMember
  • What locations and what times are these services Offered
    • ServiceTerritory
    • ServiceTerritoryWorkType
    • OperatingHours
    • TimeSlot
    • AppointmentTopicTimeSlot
  • What skills are required to provide these services
    • Skill
    • SkillRequirement
  • Who is providing these services and at what times they are NOT available
    • ServiceResource (A user or an Asset)
    • ServiceResourceSkill
    • ServiceTerritoryMember
    • ResourceAbsence
  1. Guest User Setup
  • Make sure you set the default timezone for the guest user profile for the Scheduler
    • Note: Additional customization is required to support the timezone mapping for guest appointments which can be passed via APIs if out of the box flow templates do not support use cases.
  • To allow a guest to schedule appointments, update the Guest User Profile to allow guests users to
    • Run Flows
    • Edit Events
  1. Optionally, configure field level security for the Asset field on the Service Resource object
  • The Asset field becomes available only when your org has an Asset Scheduling license enabled and provisioned in the instance
  • Grant Edit permission to profiles that will book appointments, including guest profiles
  • Add the Asset field to the page layout for the Service Resource object

External Website – Guest User Flow

As mentioned in the preface, to expose lightning components out of Salesforce, we will explore the LightningOut feature. External websites can be your business websites, and adding an experience for customers to request and schedule appointments we need to add a Lightning component to the external website.

Steps involved here

  1. Generate web-based html code that will include the details of the Experience site and the LightningOut component which launches the Guest user Flow. Here is a sample code and refer the demo video to know what changes to make to this sample code so that it works for you.
    1. <head></head>
      <script src=”;></script>
      $Lightning.use(“runtime_appointmentbooking:lightningOutGuest”, // name of the Lightning app
      function() {
      “lightning:flow”, // top-level component of your app
      { }, // attributes to set on the component when created
      “lightningLocator”, // the DOM location to insert the component
      function(cmp) {
      console.log(‘Hi from callback’);// callback when component is created and active on the page
      }, ‘; // Community endpoint

      <div id=”lightningLocator”>
      <p>Lightning Component mentioned in the Script is invoked from here</p>
  2. Work with your company’s external website administrators to embed the above component into your company’s external website where you plan to have it.
  3. Get the details of the page like URL where this is hosted, this will be required to let the external traffic into salesforce in the next step
  4. Setup CORS
    1. Typically this to whitelist the Origin URLs, so that Salesforce can allow these web browsers to communicate with Salesforce

Case Study

Demo Video –
Demo Video on W3Schools –